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Journal of Neurorestoratology  2020, Vol. 8 Issue (4): 232-240    doi: 10.26599/JNR.2020.9040024
Special Report     
Clinical neurorestorative therapeutic guideline for brainstem hemorrhage (2020 China version)
Lin Chen1,Tao Chen2,Gengsheng Mao3,(✉)(),Baodong Chen4,Mingchang Li5,Hongbo Zhang6,Haitao Xi7,Xiaochun She8,Zhouping Tang9,Ping Zhang9,Zhiqiang Zhang10,Li Cong10,Yijun Bao11,Xiaofeng Yang12,Siyuan Zhao1,Chao He13,Liang Wen12,Ping Zhang14,Mengzhou Xue15,On behalf of Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (Preparatory) and China Committee of International Association of Neurorestoratology
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Dongzhimen Hospital, University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China
2 Beijing Huicheng Medical Research Institute, Beijing 100048, China
3 Institute of Neurorestoratology, Third Medical Center of General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100039, China
4 Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518035, China
5 Department of Neurosurgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China
6 Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, The National Key Clinical Specialty, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Guangzhou 510282, Guangdong, China
7 Department of Neurology, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100144, China
8 Department of Neurosurgery, Rudong People's Hospital, Nantong 226400, Jiangsu, China
9 Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China
10 Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Province Hospital of Chinese Medical, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong, China
11 Department of Neurosurgery, Fourth Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110084, Liaoning, China
12 Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengjiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang, China
13 Department of Neurosurgery, Zhuji Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhuji 311800, Zhejiang, China
14 Department of Neurology, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen 518055, China
15 The Department of Cerebrovascular Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Joint International Laboratory of Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Brain Injury, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China
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Brainstem hemorrhage (mainly pontine hemorrhage caused by hypertension) has the clinical characteristics of acute onset, rapid progress, high mortality, and high disability rate. Due to the complexity of the brainstem’s anatomical structure and functional importance, it is generally recognized that brainstem treatment is difficult and risky, so it has been regarded as a restricted area of surgery. However, in recent years, continuous progress is being made in many areas, including microsurgical technology, stereotactic technology, robot-assisted surgery, neuroendoscopy, and theoretical and clinical practice of neurorestoration, aiding in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of brainstem hemorrhage injuries. The Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR; Preparatory) and the China Committee of International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR-China Committee) organized relevant experts to formulate this clinical guideline to diagnose and restore damaged nerves after brainstem hemorrhages, promote a standardized diagnosis, and neurorestoratologically treat this disease.

Key wordsbrainstem hemorrhage      neurorestoratological treatment      surgery      guideline     
Received: 19 October 2020      Published: 07 February 2021
Corresponding Authors: Gengsheng Mao     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Lin Chen, Tao Chen, Gengsheng Mao, Baodong Chen, Mingchang Li, Hongbo Zhang, Haitao Xi, Xiaochun She, Zhouping Tang, Ping Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Li Cong, Yijun Bao, Xiaofeng Yang, Siyuan Zhao, Chao He, Liang Wen, Ping Zhang, Mengzhou Xue. Clinical neurorestorative therapeutic guideline for brainstem hemorrhage (2020 China version). Journal of Neurorestoratology, 2020, 8: 232-240.

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