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    Volume 5 No. 1
    26 December 2017
    Neurorestorative clinical application standards for the culture and quality control of olfactory ensheathing cells
    Juan Xiao, Lin Chen, Gengsheng Mao, Wenyong Gao, Ming Lu, Xijing He, Hongyun Huang
    2017, 5(1):  175-179.  doi:10.2147/JN.S148107
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (121KB) ( 100 )  
    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a novel type of glial cell that can perform and promote many neurorestorative processes in vivo after transplant. To date, dozens of preclinical and clinical studies have confirmed that OECs have unique restoring effects in animal models and human subjects with neurological degeneration or damage, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, and motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). To ensure the safety and eff...
    Feasibility of combined treatment for type III spinal muscular atrophy: a pilot study
    Nataliia Sych, Mariya Klunnyk, Iryna Matiyashchuk, Mariya Demchuk, Olena Ivankova, Andriy Sinelnyk, Khrystyna Sorochynska, Marina Skalozub
    2017, 5(1):  167-173.  doi:10.2147/JN.S138227
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (398KB) ( 75 )  
    Objective: To find solutions and improve methods of therapy for patients suffering from type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA-III) by way of a combination of conventional treatment (medicines, physiotherapy) and fetal stem cells (FSCs) transplantation using suspensions extracted from stem cells of fetal liver and brain of human embryos. Materials and methods: Our study included 7 children suffering from SMA-III, including 5 boys and 2 girls, aged from 3 to 12 years who were allocated into the ma...
    In vitro study of neural stem cells and activated Schwann cells cocultured on electrospinning polycaprolactone scaffolds
    Baoyou Fan, Xianhu Zhou, Lina Wang, Zhijian Wei, Wei Lin, Yiming Ren, Guidong Shi, Xin Cheng, Lianyong Wang, Shiqing Feng
    2017, 5(1):  155-165.  doi:10.2147/JN.S139823
    Abstract ( 111 )   PDF (9780KB) ( 15 )  
    Background: To investigate the biocompatibility of electrospinning polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds and coculture system, which consisted of neural stem cells (NSCs) and activated Schwann cells (ASCs). Materials and methods: ASCs were isolated from sciatic nerves, ligated for 7 days, in 4-week-old Wistar rats, and the NSCs were isolated from the hippocampus of E14.5 Wistar rat embryos. ASCs, NSCs and ASCs combined with NSCs were 3D cultured on the electrospinning PCL fiber scaffolds. Cryst...
    Effects of IGFBP-2 on proliferation and differentiation in neural stem cell line C17.2
    Yujia Deng, Lei Wang, Lite Ge, Da Duan, Yi Zhuo, Ting Yuan, Weiping Yan, Peiqi Huang, Xiaohua Teng, Ming Lu
    2017, 5(1):  143-153.  doi:10.2147/JN.S134363
    Abstract ( 138 )   PDF (4970KB) ( 236 )  
    Objective: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), a member of a highly conserved family of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), can regulate several cellular processes through IGF-dependent or IGF-independent pathway. Recent studies have provided solid evidence for the importance to delineate that olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC)-conditioned medium (OCM) can not only facilitate the differentiation of neural stem cell line (C17.2) into neurons, but also prom...
    Direct interaction of receptor tyrosine kinases, EphA4 and PDGFRβ, plays an important role in the proliferation of neural stem cells
    Qingfa Chen, Takahiro Sawada, Kazushige Sakaguchi, Fabin Han
    2017, 5(1):  133-141.  doi:10.2147/JN.S139820
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (653KB) ( 211 )  
    Receptor tyrosine kinases mediate the extracellular signals and transmit them into the cytoplasm by activating intracellular proteins through tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Ephs and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors (PDGFRs) have been implicated in neurogenesis, but the functional interaction between these two pathways is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that EphA4 directly interacts with PDGFRβ and mutually activates each other when expressed in HEK293T cells. H9-d...
    Stem cell-based therapies to treat spinal cord injury: a review
    Zhongju Shi, Hongyun Huang, Shiqing Feng
    2017, 5(1):  125-131.  doi:10.2147/JN.S139677
    Abstract ( 138 )   PDF (335KB) ( 136 )  
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition and major burden on society and individuals. Currently, neurorestorative strategies, including stem cell therapy products or mature/functionally differentiated cell-derived cell therapy products, can restore patients with chronic complete SCI to some degree of neurological functions. The stem cells for neurorestoration include neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, etc. A better understa...
    Curcumin reduces hippocampal neuron apoptosis and JNK-3 phosphorylation in rats with Aβ-induced Alzheimer’s disease: protecting spatial learning and memory
    Yun-liang Wang, Jin-feng Li, Yu-tong Wang, Chun-yang Xu, Lin-lin Hua, Xiao-peng Yang, Shuang Geng, Shan-shan Wang, Zhen Wang, Hong-lei Yin
    2017, 5(1):  117-123.  doi:10.2147/JN.S125567
    Abstract ( 125 )   PDF (550KB) ( 123 )  
    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Curcumin may prevent Aβ fiber formation, slowing AD progression. A model of AD was established in 32 Sprague Dawley rats by injection of 10 μg Aβ1-40 into the right hippocampus. Saline was used in sham control (n=16). Sixteen AD model rats received 300 mg/kg curcumin and another 16 received saline daily for 7 days. Spa...
    2016 yearbook of neurorestoratology
    Hongyun Huang, Gengsheng Mao, Shiqing Feng, Lin Chen
    2017, 5(1):  111-115.  doi:10.2147/JN.S132589
    Abstract ( 106 )   PDF (123KB) ( 98 )  
    Neurorestoratology, a new interdisciplinary field, has gradually become a popular clinical discipline. Physicians and scientists in the neurorestoration field have discovered new pathogeneses of nervous system diseases and damage, explored new neurorestorative mechanisms, and obtained improving neurorestorative effects in clinical trials (or therapies). This paper summarizes the major progress achieved over the past year.
    Intrathecal transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells by lumbar puncture for thoracic spinal cord injury in mice
    Tao Liu*, Zhongqing Ji*, Shaik Mohammed Ahsan, Yu Zhang, Peng Zhang, Zhihai Fan, Yixin Shen
    2017, 5(1):  103-109.  doi:10.2147/JN.S120929
    Abstract ( 116 )   PDF (4719KB) ( 101 )  
    Objectives: To investigate the distribution and function of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) following lumbar puncture (LP) transplantation in mouse spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: OECs were transplanted by LP at level L3-5, 1 week after transected SCI at T8 vertebra. Mice were killed at 3, 21, and 56 days after LP transplantation, and the relative distribution of cells at T8 vertebra was quantitated. The injured spine was also tested by immunohistochemistry to assess neuron regeneration an...
    Combined transplantation of neural precursor cells and olfactory ensheathing cells for the treatment of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in children
    Hui Yang, Yu Zhang, Zhaoyan Wang, Wei Lu, Fang Liu, Xin Yu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Yinxiang Yang, Zuo Luan, Suqing Qu
    2017, 5(1):  93-101.  doi:10.2147/JN.S124367
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (3112KB) ( 135 )  
    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is only suitable for early-stage adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In this study, we observed the therapeutic efficacy of combined transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on late-stage X-linked ALD in nine children who were admitted in our hospital between June 2009 and January 2014. Related patient information included onset time 3 months to 1 year, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score 11.02±0.90, and ne...
    Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for traumatic brain injury involving autophagy pathway in rats
    Wen-Chao Liu, Liang Wen, Hao Wang, Jiang-Biao Gong, Tian-Xiang Zhan, Yuan-Yuan Meng, Xiao-Feng Yang
    2017, 5(1):  85-91.  doi:10.2147/JN.S119037
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (836KB) ( 113 )  
    In the present study, we evaluated the changes in autophagy after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigated whether autophagy takes part in the neuroprotection after HBO treatment. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to four groups randomly: sham injury, sham injury and HBO, TBI, and TBI and HBO. The HBO rats received HBO treatment for 100 min immediately after injury. Rats were sacrificed at 24 h after the brain injury and the levels of cleaved caspa...
    Clinical therapeutic guideline for neurorestoration in spinal cord injury (Chinese version 2016)
    Yaping Feng, Tiansheng Sun, Lin Chen, Jiaxin Xie, Zhicheng Zhang, Hongyun Huang, Xijing He
    2017, 5(1):  73-83.  doi:10.2147/JN.S119581
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (774KB) ( 119 )  
    Restoring functions following spinal cord injury (SCI) was the most challenging task in clinical practice in the past. Fortunately, some effective neurorestorative methods have been exploited in acute, subacute, and chronic phase of SCI. There were no clinical neurorestorative therapeutic guidelines available before this document which can be followed by physicians to manage patients with acute, subacute, and chronic SCI. This guideline will be a helpful reference to physicians to implement thei...
    Restoration of optic neuropathy
    Si-Wei You, Ming-Mei Wu, Fang Kuang, Kin-Sang Cho, Kwok-Fai So
    2017, 5(1):  59-72.  doi:10.2147/JN.S120640
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (226KB) ( 106 )  
    Optic neuropathy refers to disorders involving the optic nerve (ON). Any damage to ON or ON-deriving neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), may lead to the breakdown of the optical signal transmission from the eye to the brain, thus resulting in a partial or complete vision loss. The causes of optic neuropathy include trauma, ischemia, inflammation, compression, infiltration, and mitochondrial damages. ON injuries include primary and secondary injuries. During these injury phases, various f...
    Clinical neurorestorative progresses in cerebral palsy
    Alok Sharma, Tongchao Geng, Hemangi Sane, Pooja Kulkarni
    2017, 5(1):  51-57.  doi:10.2147/JN.S99014
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (485KB) ( 105 )  
    Cerebral palsy (CP), group of permanent nonprogressive clinical disorders in children, is caused by damage to the immature brain. Conventionally available treatments for CP are mainly targeted toward management of its symptoms. With the upcoming field of neurorestorative strategies, we are now able to repair the core brain damage in CP. There are various drugs, stem cells, etc, which have been implicated to have neurorestorative properties. Autologous bone marrow stem cells, umbilical cord stem ...
    Chromaffin cell transplantation for neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a report of two cases
    Lin Chen, Haitao Xi, Juan Xiao, Feng Zhang, Di Chen, Hongyun Huang
    2017, 5(1):  47-50.  doi:10.2147/JN.S120173
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (134KB) ( 107 )  
    Neuropathic pain (NP), a common secondary complication following spinal cord injury (SCI), presenting at or below the level of injury is largely refractory to current pharmacological, physical, and surgical treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated the promising value of cell therapy including adrenal chromaffin cells that have the capacity to act as mini-pumps that release amines and peptides for alleviating chronic pain. The paper presents the cases of two gentlemen suffering from severe ...
    Clinical cell therapy guidelines for neurorestoration (China version 2016)
    Hongyun Huang, Lin Chen, Qingyan Zou, Fabin Han, Tiansheng Sun, Gengsheng Mao, Xijing He
    2017, 5(1):  39-46.  doi:10.2147/JN.S115756
    Abstract ( 169 )   PDF (321KB) ( 93 )  
    Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system disease or damage, and >30 types of cells have been identified through preclinical studies as having the capacity for neurorestoration. To standardize the clinical procedures of cell therapy as one of the strategies for treating neurological disorders, the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration was completed in 2011 by the Chinese Branch of the Internatio...
    Anti-inflammatory effect of stem cells against spinal cord injury via regulating macrophage polarization
    Zhijian Cheng, Xijing He
    2017, 5(1):  31-38.  doi:10.2147/JN.S115696
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (281KB) ( 116 )  
    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event that involves not just an acute physical injury but also inflammation-driven secondary injury. Macrophages play a very important role in secondary injury. The effects of macrophages on tissue damage and repair after SCI are related to macrophage polarization. Stem cell transplantation has been studied as a promising treatment for SCI. Recently, increasing evidence shows that stem cells, including mesenchymal stem, neural stem/progenitor, and embryoni...
    Neurorestoratology evidence in an animal model with cervical spondylotic myelopathy
    Xiang Li, Guangsheng Li, Keith Dip-Kei Luk, Yong Hu
    2017, 5(1):  21-29.  doi:10.2147/JN.S123968
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (3972KB) ( 123 )  
    Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a chronic compression injury of the spinal cord, with potentially reversible conditions after surgical decompression, and a unique model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Several animal studies showed pathological changes of demyelination, axon loss and neuron apoptosis in rats with chronic spinal cord compression. However, there is a limited understanding of the neurological change in the spinal cord after surgical decompression. The aim of t...
    Stem cell-transplantation therapy for adrenoleukodystrophy: current perspectives
    Weston Miller
    2017, 5(1):  5-19.  doi:10.2147/JN.S99304
    Abstract ( 146 )   PDF (256KB) ( 129 )  
    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare, X-linked peroxisomal disorder of impaired very long-chain fatty-acid metabolism. It results from various mutations in the ABCD1 gene (Xq28). All males with the biochemical defect of ALD are at risk of developing cerebral white-matter disease (cALD) during their lifetime. Thirty-five percent of ALD patients develop cALD in boyhood, a life-threatening phenotype characterized by rapidly expanding, neuroinflammatory demyelination and irreversible clinical neurol...
    Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury
    Feng Zhang, Xiangzhi Meng, Fang Lu, Aixian Liu, Hongyun Huang
    2017, 5(1):  1-4.  doi:10.2147/JN.S120524
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (132KB) ( 93 )  
    Objective: To observe the result of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation in a patient with chronic sciatic nerve injury. Case report: A 53-year-old male patient with chronic (1 year) sciatic nerve injury on left side received OEC transplantation at the lesion site. He received follow-up assessment according to the American Spinal Injury Association standard at 10 days, 6 months, and 1 year after OEC therapy. The muscle strength of his left lower limb increased and numbness decreased ...