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    Volume 2 No. 1
    26 December 2014
    Molecular and structural bases for postsynaptic signal processing: interaction between postsynaptic density and postsynaptic membrane rafts
    Tatsuo Suzuki, Wei-Dong Yao
    2014, 2(1):  1-14.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49206
    Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (2643KB) ( 20 )  
    Postsynaptic membrane rafts (or lipid rafts) (PSRs), together with the postsynaptic density (PSD), are believed to be major sites important for postsynaptic signaling, function, and plasticity. Although the PSD has received much attention and is extensively investigated, PSR roles and their relationship with PSDs are poorly understood. Our recent work has identified PSD-PSR complexes from synaptic membranes of the rat brain and demonstrated specific interactions between them in vitro. Here, we r...
    Review of recently documented clinical neuroprotective and cellular treatment for spinal cord injury: an analysis of outcomes
    Hooshang Saberi, Nazi Derakhshanrad, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
    2014, 2(1):  15-24.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49208
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (1040KB) ( 23 )  
    Emergence of new neuroprotective treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) in recent clinical studies is a matter of great scientific and public interest. Effect size and complication rates are of particular concern. In this study, a search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Scholar Google search engines using the keywords “spinal cord injury”, “cell transplantation” and “neuroprotective”. Clinical studies published in the English language were...
    Respiratory muscle aids to avert respiratory failure and tracheostomy: a new patient management paradigm
    John R Bach, Anokhi D Mehta
    2014, 2(1):  25-36.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49488
    Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (1835KB) ( 37 )  
    An April 2010 consensus of clinicians from 22 centers in 18 countries reported 1,623 spinal muscular atrophy type 1, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support users, of whom 760 developed continuous dependence that prolonged their survival by more than 3,000 patient-years without tracheostomies. Four of the centers routinely extubated unweanable patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, so that none of their mor...
    Efficacy of fetal stem cells in Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy
    Nataliia Sych, Mariya Klunnik, Olena Ivankova, Irina Matyaschuk, Mariya Demchuk, Alla Novytska, Inna Arkhipenko, Iuliia Shalita, Dario Siniscalco
    2014, 2(1):  37-46.  doi:10.2147/JN.S57276
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (851KB) ( 25 )  
    The absence of effective treatment methods for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) calls for new therapeutic approaches. One of the promising treatment methods for DMD is stem cell therapy. This study demonstrates the impact of fetal stem cells (FSCs) on functional capacity and life quality of DMD patients and the ability of FSCs to prevent DMD-related complications in order to inhibit the disease progression. FSC therapy substantially improves functional capacity, life quality, left ventricular e...
    Cerebrolysin protects against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration
    Omar ME Abdel-Salam, Nadia A Mohammed, Eman R Youness, Yasser A Khadrawy, Enayat A Omara, Amany A Sleem
    2014, 2(1):  47-64.  doi:10.2147/JN.S50114
    Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (18911KB) ( 1 )  
    We investigated the effect of cerebrolysin, a peptide mixture used for promoting memory and recovery from cerebral stroke, on the development of oxidative stress and nigrostriatal cell injury induced by rotenone administration in rats. Rotenone 1.5 mg/kg was given subcutaneously three times weekly either alone or in combination with cerebrolysin at 21.5, 43, or 86 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized 14 days after starting the rotenone injection. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reduced glutathione ...
    Rotenone-induced nigrostriatal toxicity is reduced by methylene blue
    Omar ME Abdel-Salam, Enayat A Omara, Eman R Youness, Yasser A Khadrawy, Nadia A Mohammed, Amany A Sleem
    2014, 2(1):  65-80.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49207
    Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (14787KB) ( 1 )  
    This study investigated the effect of subcutaneously injected methylene blue on oxidative stress and nigrostriatal damage induced in the rat brain by systemic rotenone injection. Rotenone 1.5 mg/kg (injected subcutaneously three times per week) was given alone or in combination with methylene blue (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg subcutaneously daily) for 2 weeks. Brain concentrations of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide (nitrite), and acetylcholinesterase, paraoxonase 1 activity, and the an...
    Bone loss following spinal cord injury
    Ali H Otom, M Rami Al-Ahmar
    2014, 2(1):  81-84.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49438
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (342KB) ( 20 )  
    Background:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of bone loss and its consequences in a group of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients managed at the Spinal Unit-Royal Rehabilitation Centre, King Hussein Medical Centre, and its correlation with level and extent of injury, age, and time since injury.Methods:Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in a group of patients who had suffered an SCI a mean of 8.6 (range...
    A long-term, complex, unitary appraisal regarding neurorestorative, including neurorehabilitative, outcomes in patients treated with Cerebrolysin®, following traumatic brain injury
    Cristina Daia, Monica Haras, Tiberiu Spircu, Aurelian Anghelescu, Liliana Onose, Alexandru Vlad Ciurea, Anca Sanda Mihăescu, Gelu Onose
    2014, 2(1):  85-94.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49693
    Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (282KB) ( 19 )  
    Background:Neuroprotection is a modern therapeutic concept that has some useful outcomes discussed in the literature, including for traumatic brain injury (TBI).Scope and study design: This was a retrospective case-control study that was approved by the bioethics commission of the Bagdasar-Arseni Teaching Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania. The aim of the study was to comparatively assess neurorestorative, including neurorehabilitative, outcomes obtained with or without Cerebrolysin®...
    Full spectrum neurorestoratology: enhancing neuroresponse to disasters
    Russell J Andrews, Leonidas Quintana
    2014, 2(1):  95-106.  doi:10.2147/JN.S49109
    Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (3252KB) ( 18 )  
    With more than 200,000 deaths in some years from earthquakes alone, disasters, both natural and manmade, are a major challenge for neurorestoratology. To minimize permanent neurological injury and death, it is essential for treatment to begin immediately, within minutes ideally, but certainly within 24 hours. Fortunately, the humanitarian and medical response to disasters removes the socioeconomic, legal, and political barriers that can hinder the treatment of neurological disorders under normal...
    Fetal stem cells in combined treatment of chronic heart failure and their effect on morphofunctional parameters of the left ventricle myocardium and cognitive functions
    Mariya O Klunnyk, Nataliia S Sych, Irina G Matiyashchuk, Olena V Ivankova, Marina V Skalozub
    2014, 2(1):  107-117.  doi:10.2147/JN.S66612
    Abstract ( 35 )   PDF (597KB) ( 18 )  
    Aim:To investigate the effect of combined treatment with the inclusion of fetal stem cells (FSCs) on the morphology and functional dynamics of the left ventricle and cognitive functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Materials and methods: A comparative study was carried out on patients with CHF to examine the effect of combined treatment, including the experimental application of FSCs, on the morphofunctional parameters of the left ventricle and cognitive functions. Patients were ...