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    Volume 3 No. 1
    26 December 2015
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in Alzheimer's disease
    Liyan Qiao, Hongyun Huang, Dafin F Muresanu
    2015, 3(1):  1-10.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74143
    Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (279KB) ( 41 )  
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia, and its neuropathology is characterized by the deposition of insoluble β-amyloid peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and the loss of diverse neurons. Although much is known about the neurobiology of AD, few treatments are available to arrest or slow the illness. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches for AD. We reviewed the recent improvements in the neurorastorlogy strategies for AD, includ...
    Research progress in animal models and stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease
    Fabin Han, Wei Wang, Chao Chen
    2015, 3(1):  11-22.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74160
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (822KB) ( 45 )  
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes degeneration of brain neurons and leads to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Since current therapeutic strategies cannot cure the disease, stem cell therapy represents a powerful tool for the treatment of AD. We first review the advances in molecular pathogenesis and animal models of AD and then discuss recent clinical studies using small molecules and immunoglobulins to target amyloid-beta plaques for AD therapy. Finally, we discuss stem cell therapy for AD u...
    Neurorestorative process, law, and mechanisms
    Hongyun Huang, Lin Chen
    2015, 3(1):  23-30.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74139
    Abstract ( 51 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 37 )  
    Neurorestoration, or restoration of neurological function, can be achieved by different strategies through a series of neurorestorative mechanisms, including neuroprotection, neuromodulation, neuroplasticity, immunomodulation, axonal regeneration and sprouting, remyelination or neurorepair, neuroregeneration or neurogenesis, and neuroreplacement. Unfortunately, these mechanisms have been studied and viewed in isolation. The aim of this review is to generalize all attacking insults and restoring ...
    Developmental history of neurorestoratology
    Hongyun Huang, Lin Chen, Paul R Sanberg
    2015, 3(1):  31-38.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74138
    Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (235KB) ( 36 )  
    The aim of neurorestoratology is to restore, promote and maintain the integrity of impaired or lost neuronal functions and/or structures, using novel cell-based comprehensive neurorestorative strategies. The purpose of this review is to briefly introduce the developing history of neurorestoratology, which includes neurorestorative strategies, the basis of central nervous system neurorestorable theory, communities in the field of neurorestoratology, and journals related to neurorestoratology.
    Novel theory of the human brain: information-commutation basis of architecture and principles of operation
    Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy
    2015, 3(1):  39-56.  doi:10.2147/JN.S75126
    Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (3972KB) ( 40 )  
    Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, hologra...
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in traumatic brain injury
    Huiling Huang, Lin Chen, Hongyun Huang
    2015, 3(1):  57-62.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74486
    Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (175KB) ( 43 )  
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability from trauma to the central nervous system. Besides the surgical interventions and symptomatic management, the conventional therapies for TBI and its sequelae are still limited. Recently emerging evidence suggests that some neurorestorative treatments appear to have a potential therapeutic role for TBI and improving the patient's quality of life. The current clinical neurorestorative strategies available in TBI include pharma...
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in stroke
    Liyan Qiao, Jun Lu, Hongyun Huang
    2015, 3(1):  63-72.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74142
    Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (220KB) ( 35 )  
    Stroke is the second most common single cause of death worldwide, with over five million deaths per year globally. So far, conventional therapy has failed to restore neurological function poststroke. Neurorestorative strategy has provided therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. This review outlines the clinical advances, in which cell-based neurorestorative strategies offer the broadest range of potential treatments for stroke.
    Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art
    Leandro H Grecco, Shasha Li, Sarah Michel, Laura Castillo-Saavedra, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Marom Bikson, Felipe Fregni
    2015, 3(1):  73-82.  doi:10.2147/JN.S77813
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (795KB) ( 74 )  
    Treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) still have limited effects. Electrical stimulation might facilitate plastic changes in affected spinal circuitries that may be beneficial in improving motor function and spasticity or SCI-related neuropathic pain. Based on available animal and clinical evidence, we critically reviewed the physiological basis and therapeutic action of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in SCI. We analyzed the literature published on PubMed to date, looking for the role ...
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in multiple sclerosis
    Tong Chao Geng, Victor W Mark
    2015, 3(1):  83-90.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74146
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (217KB) ( 38 )  
    With the chronic progress of the disease, the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis will eventually become severely disabled and unable to live independently. Neurorestorative strategies, including cell therapy and neuromodulation, combined with neurorehabilitation, have shown encouraging signs that may benefit multiple sclerosis patients. This review indicates current progress in this area.
    Progress and challenges with clinical cell therapy in neurorestoratology
    Hongyun Huang, Gengsheng Mao, Lin Chen, Aibing Liu
    2015, 3(1):  91-96.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74140
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (172KB) ( 41 )  
    Cell therapies in the treatment of central nervous system disease and injury, such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, sequelae of stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cerebral palsy, have been studied in the clinic for the last 10-20 years. Excitingly, many studies have demonstrated that most patients appear to have some functional improvement following administration of different types of cells by different routes with relatively low risk and good tolerability. However, there are ...
    Overview of ethical issues for conducting neuroprotective clinical trials in patients with spinal cord injury
    Hooshang Saberi, Nazi Derakhshanrad, Mahsa Ghajarzadeh
    2015, 3(1):  97-100.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74137
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (144KB) ( 32 )  
    Animals have been used in medical and biological researches worldwide for long time. Almost all of these studies are published with the hope of clinical application. However, there are meticulous criteria considering results of animal studies in clinical trials of human beings. In recent years, the number of experimental research in animal models of spinal cord injury has been growing. However, there is no warranty for translation of experimental studies into clinical practice. Certain protocols...
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in Parkinson's disease
    Lin Chen, Hongyun Huang, Wei-Ming Duan, Gengsheng Mao
    2015, 3(1):  101-108.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74144
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (232KB) ( 46 )  
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the common neurodegenerative diseases. Besides the symptomatic therapies, the increasing numbers of neurorestorative therapies have shown the potential therapeutic value of reversing the neurodegenerative process and improving the patient's quality of life. Currrently available novel clinical neurorestorative strategies include pharmacological managements (glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, selegiline, recombinant human erythropoietin), neuromodulatio...
    Clinical neurorestorative progress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Lin Chen, Hongyun Huang, Haitao Xi, Gengsheng Mao
    2015, 3(1):  109-114.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74145
    Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (178KB) ( 37 )  
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis and motor neuron death. In addition to symptomatic managements such as ventilation and nutritional support, neurorestorative therapies have demonstrated anti-neurodegenerative potential and may improve quality of life for patients. Currently, clinical neurorestorative strategies include pharmacological management (granulocyte colony stimulating factor), neuromodulatory interv...
    Treatment with adipose stem cells in a patient with moderate Alzheimer's disease: case report
    Magda Tsolaki, Stelios Zygouris, Vassilis Tsoutsikas, Doxakis Anestakis, George Koliakos
    2015, 3(1):  115-120.  doi:10.2147/JN.S92869
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (777KB) ( 43 )  
    Objective: This article presents the case of a female patient with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The patient was treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and also with intravenous administration of autologous adipose stem cells.Methods: The patient was assessed with a neuropsychological battery including measures of general cognition, functional problems, neuropsychiatric issues, memory (verbal, visual and episodic), verbal learning and visuospatial abilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans we...
    Beijing Declaration of International Association of Neurorestoratology
    Wise Young, Ziad M AlZoubi, Hooshang Saberi, Alok Sharma, Dafin Muresanu, Shiqing Feng, Lin Chen, Hongyun Huang
    2015, 3(1):  121-122.  doi:10.2147/JN.S89682
    Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (128KB) ( 36 )  
    Nanofibrous scaffolds supporting optimal central nervous system regeneration: an evidence-based review
    Munyaradzi Kamudzandu, Paul Roach, Rosemary A Fricker, Ying Yang
    2015, 3(1):  123-132.  doi:10.2147/JN.S70337
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (1248KB) ( 42 )  
    Restoration of function following damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is severely restricted by several factors. These include the hindrance of axonal regeneration imposed by glial scars resulting from inflammatory response to damage, and limited axonal outgrowth toward target tissue. Strategies for promoting CNS functional regeneration include the use of nanotechnology. Due to their structural similarity, synthetic nanofibers could play an important role in regeneration of CNS neural tis...
    Exercise following spinal cord injury: physiology to therapy
    David R Dolbow
    2015, 3(1):  133-139.  doi:10.2147/JN.S61828
    Abstract ( 67 )   PDF (193KB) ( 64 )  
    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can have catastrophic effects on individuals resulting in loss of physical abilities and independence. Loss of the ability to perform activities of daily living reduces the quality of life. Furthermore, decreased ability to perform physical activities decreases overall fitness and increases the risk of diseases related to sedentary lifestyle. Activity-based restorative therapies (ABRTs) provide an option to help optimize rehabilitation through the restoration of funct...