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    Volume 4 No. 1
    26 December 2016
    Rethinking on ethics and regulations in cell therapy as part of neurorestoratology
    Alok Sharma, Ziad M Al Zoubi
    2016, 4(1):  1-14.  doi:10.2147/JN.S74135
    Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (331KB) ( 34 )  
    Ethics, regulations, and evidence-based practices form the foundation of modern medicine. However, in recent years, and particularly in reference to cellular therapy, they have become obstacles to the growth and development of this new form of treatment. Based on four important documents, it is proposed that regulatory bodies and medical associations recommend an alternate way of looking at regulations for cell therapy, so as to ensure that only safe and effective treatments are offered to patie...
    Therapeutic effects of neurotrophic factors in experimental spinal cord injury models
    Mitsuhiro Enomoto
    2016, 4(1):  15-22.  doi:10.2147/JN.S66874
    Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (1249KB) ( 44 )  
    Neurotrophic factors (NFs) play important roles in regenerative medicine approaches to mitigate primary and secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI) because their receptors are still present in the injured spinal cord even though the expression of the NFs themselves is decreased. Several reports have shown that NF administration increases regenerative signaling after SCI, particularly by stimulating axonal growth. However, few NFs cross the blood-brain barrier, and most of them show low s...
    Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells induces recovery of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease
    Chao Chen, Jing Duan, Aifang Shen, Wei Wang, Hao Song, Yanming Liu, Xianjie Lu, Xiaobing Wang, Zhiqing You, Zhongchao Han, Fabin Han
    2016, 4(1):  23-34.  doi:10.2147/JN.S98835
    Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (2749KB) ( 37 )  
    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs) were reported to have neurorestorative capacity for neurological disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study was performed to explore if hUCB-MNC transplantation plays any therapeutic effects for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. hUCB-MNCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and administered to the striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The apomorphine-induced locomotive t...
    Ex vivo differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells into neuronal cell-like lineages
    Adeeb Al-Zoubi, Feras Altwal, Farah Khalifeh, Jamil Hermas, Ziad Al-Zoubi, Emad Jafar, Mohammed El-Khateeb
    2016, 4(1):  35-44.  doi:10.2147/JN.S101001
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (9667KB) ( 7 )  
    Background: Methods to obtain safe and practical populations of stem cells (SCs) at a clinical grade that are able to differentiate into neuronal cell lineages are yet to be developed. In a previous study, we showed that mouse bone marrow-derived SCs (BM-SCs) differentiated into neuronal cell-like lineages when put in a neuronal-like environment, which is a special media supplemented with the necessary growth factors needed for the differentiation of SCs into neuronal cell-like lineages.Aim: In ...
    Cell-based neurorestorative therapy for postpoliomyelitis syndrome: a case report
    Haitao Xi, Di Chen
    2016, 4(1):  45-50.  doi:10.2147/JN.S98584
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (2602KB) ( 61 )  
    Postpoliomyelitis syndrome refers to the new neuromuscular symptoms that occur in patients, years after their acute poliomyelitis has stabilized. A 64-year-old Danish man presented with lower limb weakness and severe pain for 2 years and 5 months. He had a history of poliomyelitis affecting his limbs 59 years ago. Physical examination revealed atrophy of muscles of both lower limbs. Electromyography revealed that recruitment of maximal voluntary contraction of muscles was decreased in the affect...
    Can mammalian vision be restored following optic nerve degeneration?
    Damien P Kuffler
    2016, 4(1):  51-62.  doi:10.2147/JN.S109523
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (876KB) ( 38 )  
    For most adult vertebrates, glaucoma, trauma, and tumors close to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) result in their neuron death and no possibility of vision reestablishment. For more distant traumas, RGCs survive, but their axons do not regenerate into the distal nerve stump due to regeneration-inhibiting factors and absence of regeneration-promoting factors. The annual clinical incidence of blindness in the United States is 1:28 (4%) for persons >40 years, with the total number of blind pe...
    Epidural spinal cord stimulation for recovery from spinal cord injury: its place in therapy
    Line Jacques, Michael Safaee
    2016, 4(1):  63-68.  doi:10.2147/JN.S61824
    Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (154KB) ( 48 )  
    This paper is a review of some of the current research focused on using existing epidural spinal cord stimulation technologies in establishing the effectiveness in the recovery of independent standing, ambulation, or intentional movement of spinal cord injury patients. From a clinician’s perspective, the results have been intriguing, from a restorative perspective they are promising, and from a patient’s perspective they are hopeful. The outcomes, although still in the experiment...
    A combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor image to explore structure-function relationship in healthy and myelopathic spinal cord
    Jiao-Long Cui, Guangsheng Li, Kin-Cheung Mak, Keith Dip-Kei Luk, Yong Hu
    2016, 4(1):  69-78.  doi:10.2147/JN.S116450
    Abstract ( 43 )   PDF (992KB) ( 46 )  
    Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative disorder that can chronically damage the spinal cord. The aim of this study was to investigate the column-specific degeneration in the cervical cord with CSM and explore the structure-function relationship by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Patients and methods: DTI and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI were obtained from 14 healthy controls and six patients with CSM at 3 T....
    Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in ischemic stroke
    Ye Zhang, Hong Deng, Chao Pan, Yang Hu, Qian Wu, Na Liu, Zhouping Tang
    2016, 4(1):  79-84.  doi:10.2147/JN.S119874
    Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (130KB) ( 48 )  
    Stroke is a clinical disease with high incidence, high disability rate, and high mortality. But effective and safe therapy for stroke remains limited. Adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) perform a variety of therapeutic functions. MSC delivery improves neurological outcomes in ischemic stroke models via neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects such as angiogenic effects, promoting endogenous proliferation, and reducing apoptosis and inflammation. MSC secretome also showed powerful therape...
    Hypoxic and ischemic effects on gene and protein expression levels of paracrine factors by human olfactory mucosa mesenchymal-like stem cells
    Ting Yuan, Yi Zhuo, Chaying Su, Xuan Li, Da Duan, Lite Ge, Pei Wu, Hao Wang, Yujia Deng, Ming Lu
    2016, 4(1):  85-94.  doi:10.2147/JN.S118538
    Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (1099KB) ( 32 )  
    Human olfactory mucosa mesenchymal-like stem cells (hOM-MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that may exert a protective effect on the cerebral ischemia. This study was done to determine the hypoxic and ischemic effects on the mRNA and protein expression level of paracrine factors by hOM-MSCs. The hOM-MSCs were cultured with 5% or 20% serum and under either normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (3% O2) conditions. Expression levels of mRNA and protein for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nerve growt...
    Transplantation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow in a rat model of Huntington’s disease
    Teresa Serrano, Paula Pierozan, Esteban Alberti, Lisette Blanco, Karelys de la Cuétara Bernal, María E González, Nancy Pavón, Lourdes Lorigados, María A Robinson-Agramonte, Jorge A Bergado
    2016, 4(1):  95-106.  doi:10.2147/JN.S118435
    Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (4366KB) ( 44 )  
    This article investigates the possible effects of transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMCs) to ameliorate or prevent the behavioral impairments and the cellular damage observed in a quinolinic acid (QA) model of Huntington’s disease. mBMCs were isolated using a standard procedure and implanted within the QA-lesioned striatum. Behavior was explored using motor (beam test) and memory (object recognition and Morris water maze) tests. Morphology was evaluated using conventiona...
    Progress of nerve bridges in the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions
    Qiang Ao
    2016, 4(1):  107-113.  doi:10.2147/JN.S119419
    Abstract ( 51 )   PDF (196KB) ( 57 )  
    Clinical repair of a nerve defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Autologous nerve grafting remains the gold standard treatment in addressing peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be bridged by direct epineural suturing. However, the autologous nerve graft is not readily available, and the process of harvesting autologous nerve graft results in several complications. Thus, it is necessary to explore an alternative to autologous nerve graft. In the last few decades, with signifi...